How can i choose proper ESC,Motor,and prop for my quadcopter ?
Here are some notes I’ve saved that might help you. I’d also recommend looking at Joshua Bardwell on Youtube to learn more about building your own quad. You can also go here for more guides; https://rotorriot.com/pages/beginners-guide
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO BUILD YOUR QUADCOPTER?
Now that you have decided on your quadcopter frame, you need to get to work and build yourself the best drone, suited for your needs. But what are the different types of hardware you will need to build yourself the drone?
Let us take a look here:
- Flight controllers: This is a small circuit board that needs to be fixed or mounted on the copter frame. In there, it is capable of controlling in response to the input provided. So the command that is issued by the user or the operator from base level determines the behavior of the motors as transmitted by the flight controller.
- Arms: Arms are an important aspect of the quadcopter. You need to have the most appropriate set of arms for your drone based on the requirements. These should have the perfect mix of stability, flexibility and brittleness in order to have a safe flight and also protect the device from being damaged. Also, the arms should not send the vibrations on to the inner components during its flight. This will lead to the motor and the other devices getting damaged.
- Motors: It is alright to fix the frame and the arms, but the drone is not going to move until you have integrated the best motor. This is the most important component of the copter. Motors are identified by different notations. For instance, the kv rating denotes the motor velocity depicting the number of revolutions per minute when a potential difference of 1 Volt is applied with zero load.
- Propellers: The next important component of the drone is the set of propellers. There are propellers specifically designed for quadcopters, depending on the purpose of use. Firstly, the length of the propellers is important for handling the copter. This is usually given in inches. It is said that the higher the kv rating of the motors, the smaller the propellers should be. If you opt for smaller propellers, you will be able to fly the drone with greater speeds, but the efficiency will be compromised. On the other hand, if you choose the longer props, you will be able to fly the copter steadily, lift more weight during its flight and use less power.
- Speed controllers and batteries: Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) are important for having a good flight experience. Every motor in the quadcopter frame comes with an ESC that is connected to the flight controller. The current rating of each of the ESCs should exceed that required to draw the motors. In case of batteries, the lithium ion polymer batteries work the best which are lightweight and compact. They also offer high discharge rates for best results.
- Cameras and radio gear: If your aim is aerial photography, you can add a camera on the frame to get the best aerial shots. The cameras should be steady during the flight. GoPro is the most common brand name in this regard. Sometimes, enthusiasts can add two cameras in the frame, the FPV (First person view) camera and the recording camera. The FPV cameras lead to brighter images and can respond quickly to changes in light brightness.
- Control system: The control system is also mounted on the quadcopter frame includes a transmitter and a receiver. These are available in the form of single unit pieces or even as modular pieces.
Payload Capacity = ( Motor Thrust * Num of Motors * Hover) - Weight of Craft
Motor Thrust = ( ( 1/Hover ) * (Payload Capacity + Weight of Craft) ) / Num of Motors
Quadcopter flight time =(Battery Capacity * Battery Discharge /Average Amp Draw)*60
Cell Count / Voltage
Single LiPo cell has normal voltage of 3.7V
1S, 2S, 3S and so on stand for how many cells are in parallel.
4S would have 3.7V * 4 = 14.8
LiPo voltage level
empty : 3.0V ***NEVER BELOW THIS RATING
How much power the battery can hold.
Unit of measure is mAh, which means how much drain per hour
1000mAh = 1Ah
C (Discharge Rating)
50C = 50 X Capacity (in Amps)
14 BATTERY XT60 1.6277
16 BATTERY XT30 1.2908
20 ESC 0.8118
30 SIGNAL 0.2546
Size : 2206
First two digits tells you the size of the motor in mm (22mm)
Second two digits tells you how high the stator (06)
The higher the height, eg. 06 also means it has a longer stator which means more copper and more copper means more resistance and more resistance means more amps and more amps means more prop and more prop means more thrust!
KV : 2600
How many times it will spin around per volt per minute
Lower KV = Bigger Props, Higher KV = Smaller Props
Too big of prop on a high KV will be “Over Propped”
Too small of a prop on a low kV will be “Under propped”
More props means more “bite” (amps being pulled)
More amps = more heat